How to reference your academic work

Click on the form of source you wish to reference to find out what your reference should look like in your bibliography and in your text.


 

BOOKS

Books with 1 author

Order of information:

Surname of author, First name (year) Title, Place of publication: Publisher

In your bibliography:

Massumi, Brian (2002) Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation, Durham & London: Duke University Press 

In the text:

(Massumi, 2002, p. 215)

Books with 2 or 3 authors

Order of information:

Surname of author, Initial. and Surname of author, Initial. (year) Title. Edition (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher. Series and volume number if relevant

In the bibliography:

Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. (1987) A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizofrenia, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

In the text:

(Deleuze and Guattari, 1987)

In the text:

(Deleuze and Guattari, 1987, p. 406)

Books with more than 4 or more authors

Order of information:

Surnames, Initials. (year) Title. Edition (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher. Series and volume number if relevant

In the bibliography:

Buchloh, B., Hollier, D. and Vidler, A. (1998) Premises: Invested Spaces in Visual Arts and Architecture from France 1958-98. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc

In the text (write the first author’s surname followed by et al instead of all the other surnames):

(Buchloh et al, 1998)

Books with an editor

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (ed.) (year) Title Place of Publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

In the bibliography:

Prest, W. (ed.) (2014) The professions in early modern England. London: Croom Helm.

In the text:
(Prest, 2014)

Chapters / sections of an edited book

Order of information:

Surname of author, Initial (year) 'Title of chapter/section'. In: surname of editor. Initial of editor (ed.) Title of publication. Place of publication: Publisher, Pages of chapter/section Pp. xx-xx

Note: use [ed] for one editor or [eds] for more than one editor

In the bibliography:

Berry, S. (2000) 'Be Our Brand: Fashion and Personalization on the Web'. In: Bruzzi S. and Church Gibson P.  [eds] Fashion Cultures: Theories, Explorations and Analysis. London: Routledge, Pp. 49-60

In the text:

(Berry, 2000)

Books of a later Edition

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (year) Title Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

In the bibliography:
Waugh, D. (2015) The new wider world. 5th edn. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

In the text:
(Waugh, 2015)

Electronic books

When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, you should reference as a printed book.

Order of information:

Surname of author, Initial. (year) Title. Edition (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.

In the bibliography:

Massumi, B. (2002) Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Durham & London: Duke University Press

In the text:

(Massumi, 2002, p. 215)

Downloaded eBooks

Order of information:

Surname of author, Initial (year) Title. Available at: URL (Downloaded: date)

In the bibliography:

Gauntlett, D. (2008) Media, Gender and Identity: An Introduction. Available at:https://www.amazon.co.uk/Media-Gender-Identity-David-Gauntlett-ebook/dp/B001QEQQWK/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr= (Downloaded: 23 June 2017)

In the text:

(Gauntlett, 2008, p. 62)

If pagination is not available, use the information you do have (loc, %, chapter/page). For example:

(Richards, 2012, 67%)
(Adams, 1979, loc 876)

A quote already quoted in a book

Order of information:

Surname of person you are quoting, year of quote, quoted in: Surname of author, year, page number

In the bibliography:

Batchen, Geoffrey (1999) Burning with Desire: The Conception of Photography, Massachusetts: MIT Press

In the text:

(Cowper, 1785, quoted in: Batchen, 1999, p. 84)

Translated Books

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (Year) Title. Translated by Surname, Initial. Place of publication: reprint publisher.

In the bibliography:
Silone, I. (1994) Fontamara. Translated by G.David and E. Mosbacher. London: Redwords.

In the text:
(Silone, 1994)

Dictionaries, encyclopaedia and atlases

Order of information:

Title of dictionary/encyclopaedia/atlas (year) Place of publication: Publisher.

In the bibliography:

Chambers 21st Century Dictionary (2004) Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers.

In the text:

(Chambers 21st Century Dictionary, 2004)

In the bibliography:

Larousse Encyclopaedia of Archaeology (1974) England: The Hamlyn Group

In the text:

(Larousse Encyclopaedia of Archaeology, 1974)

In the bibliography:

The Phaidon Atlas of Contemporary Architecture (2004) London & New York: Phaidon Press Ltd

In the text:

(The Phaidon Atlas of Contemporary World Architecture, 2004)

Citing from Holy Books

Note: The date, place and publisher are not required

The Bible

Order of information:

Book of the Bible Chapter: verse, Holy Bible. Version

In the bibliography:

Matthew 5: 3-12, Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version.

In the text:

(Matthew 5: 3-12)

The Torah

Order of information:

Torah. Book Chapter: Verse

In the bibliography:

Torah. Shemot 3:14

In the text:

(Shemot 3:14)

The Qur'an

Order of information:

Qur’an: verse (year) Translated by, Place of publication: publisher.

In the bibliography:

Qur’an 20:26 (2010) Translated by Abdel Haleen, M.A.S. Oxford: Oxford Universtiy Press.

In the text:

(Qur’an 20:26)

Exhibition Catalogues

Order of information:

Surname, Initial (year). Title of exhibition Location and date(s) of exhibition [Exhibition Catalogue]

In the bibliography:

Urbach, P. (2007) Reform! Reform! Reform! Exhibition held at the Reform Club, London 2005 - 2006 and at Grey College, Durham University, March 2007. [Exhibition Catalogue]

In the text:

(Urbach, 2007, p.8)

Books in languages other than English

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (Year) Title of book Place of publication: publisher.

In bibliography:
Beauvoir, S. de (1966) Les Belles Images. Paris: Gallimard

In text:
(Beauvoir, 1966)

VISUAL SOURCES

Book illustrations, diagrams, logos or tablets

Order of information:

Author of book (year of publication) Title of book. Place of publication: publisher, page reference of illustration, illus./fig./logo/table

In the bibliography:
Strong, R. (1990) Lost treasures of Britain. London: Viking, pp. 62-63, illus 

In text:
(Strong, 1990, pp. 62-63, illus.)

Illustrations, diagrams, logos or tablets from online sources

Order of information:

Author, (year) Title of website, [illus./fig./logo/table] Available at: url (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
London2012 (2010) London2012 [logo]. Available at: http://www.london2012.com (Accessed: 23 May 2010)

In text:
(London2012, 2010)

Paintings

Order of information:

Artist, (year) Title of Work [Medium]. Institution or collection that houses the work, followed by the city.

In the bibliography:
Coello, C. (1664) The triumph of St. Augustine [Oil on canvas’. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

In text:
Coello (1664)

Paintings seen online

Order of information:

Artist, (year) Title of Work [Medium] Name of collection [Online] Available at: url (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
Dali, S. (1958) Madonna [Oil on canvas] Oxford art online [Online]. Available at: http://www.oxfordartonline.com (Accessed: 9 July 2010)

In text:
Dali (1958)

Photographs

Order of information:

Photographer, (year) Title of photograph. [Photograph] Place of publication: publisher (if applicable)

In the bibliography:
Parkinson, N. (1958) Coming and Going. [Photograph] New York, Rizzoli Interational Publications.

In text:
(Parkinson, 1958)

Photographs from the internet

Order of information:

Photographer (year) Title of Photograph. [Online] Available at: url (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
Pannack, L. (2013) Young British Naturists. [Online] Available at: https://www.laurapannack.com/young-british-naturists/ (Accessed: 6.9.17)

In the text:
(Pannack, 2013)

Photographs in online collections

Order of information:

Photographer (year) Title of Photograph. Taylor Wessing Portrait Prize [Online] Available at: url (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
Trayler-Smith, A. (2017) Fleeing Mosul. Taylor Wessing Portrait Prize[Online] Available at: http://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/twppp-2017/exhibition/shortlisted-artist/ (Accessed: 6.9.17)

In text:
(Trayler-Smith, 2017)

Posters

Order of information:

Artist (if known, or use title) (year). Title [Poster] Exhibited at: Location and date of exhibition, Dimensions (if relevant and available).

In the bibliography:
Smith, K. (2003) Prints, books and things [Poster]. Exhibited at New York, Museum of Modern Art. 5 December 2003 to 8 March 2004

In text:
(Smith, 2003)

Sculptures

Order of information:

Sculptor (year) Title [Sculpture] Name of collection.

In the bibliography:
Rodin, A. (1886) The Lovers [Sculpture]. Private Collection.

In text:
(Rodin, 1886)

Adverts on TV

Order of information:

Company (year) Title [Advertisement on TV Channel]. Date ad seen

In the bibliography:
British Telecom (2008) Office relocation gremlins [Advertisement on ITV1 Television]. 23 June

In text:
(British Telecom, 2008)

Adverts in a newspaper or magazine

Order of information:

Newspaper (year) ‘Company Advertised’ [Advertisement]. Date ad seen, page number

In the bibliography:
The Guardian (2007) ‘WOMAD festival’ [Advertisement]. 14 April, p. 12

In text:
(The Guardian, 2007)

Adverts on the Internet

Order of information:

Company (year) Title [Advertisement] Available at: url. (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
Lloyds TSB Bank plc (2008) Selling your house? [Advertisment]. Available at http://www.hotmail.com (Accessed: 13 February 2010).

In text:
(Lloyds TSB, 2008)

Adverts on billboards

Order of information:

Company (year) Title [Billboard at location] Date seen.

In the bibliography:
Northern Electric plc (2008) Green energy (Billboard at Ellison Road, Dunston-on-Tyne]. 14 June.

In the text:
(Northern Electric, 2008)

FILMS & VIDEOS

Films

Order of information:

Title of film (year of distribution) Directed by... [Film] Place of distribution: distribution company

In the bibliography:
Goodbye Lenin! (2003) Directed by Wolfgang Becker [Film] Berlin: X-filme Creative Pool, Westdeutscher Rundfunk and ARTE

In the text:
(Goodbye Lenin!, 2003)

DVDs

Order of information:

Title of film (year of distribution) Directed by... [DVD] Place of distribution: distribution company

In the bibliography:

Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism (2004) Directed by Robert Greenwald [DVD]

MoveOn.Org

In the text:

(Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism, 2004)

Video

Order of information:

Title of film or programme (year of distribution) Directed/produced by... [videocassette] Place of distribution: distribution company

In the bibliography:
Face to Face: Kate Adie (1998) Produced by Julien Birkett [videocassette 1 hour] UK, BBC2

In the text:
(Face to Face: Kate Adie, 1998)

Video or films on YouTube

Order of information:

Name of person posting video (Year video posted) Title of film or programme. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
Tw19751 (2012) John Berger/Ways of Seeing, Episode 1 (1972) Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pDE4VX_9Kk (Accessed: 20 July 2017)

In the text:
(tw19751, 2012)

Director’s commentaries on DVD or Blu-ray

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (Year) ‘Director’s commentary’, Name of film. Directed by… [DVD] OR [Blu-ray]. Place of Distribution: distribution company.

In the bibliography:
Wachowski, A. (2003) ‘Director’s commentary’, The Matrix Reloaded. Directed by A. & L. Wachowski [DVD}. Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc.

In the text:
(Wachowski, 2003).

Television programmes

Order of information:

Title (year of broadcast) Channel, Broadcast date.

In the bibliography:

Found (2007) BBC1, 30 April 2007

In the text:
(Found, TV programme, 2007)

To quote something a character/presenter has said

Order of information:

Name of character/presenter (Year of broadcast) Title of programme. Name of channel, Day and month of original transmission.

In the Bibliography:
Sugar, A (2012) The Apprentice. BBC One Television, 23 June.

In the text:
(Sugar, 2012)

An episode from a TV series

Order of information:

‘Title of episode’ (year) Title of programme, Series, Episode Number. Channel, broadcast date.

In the bibliography:

‘Spaghetti & Coffee’ (2012) Boardwalk Empire Series 3, Episode 2. HBO, 23 September 2012

In the text:
(‘Spaghetti & Coffee’, 2012)

Television programmes viewed on the internet

Order of information:

‘Title of episode’ (year) Title of programme/series, Series Number, Episode Number, Channel, Broadcast date. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
'Tenby' (2011) Grand Designs, Series 7, episode 30, Channel 4 Television, 28 September. Available at: http://www.channel4.com/programmes/grand-designs/episode-guide/series-7/episode-30 (Accessed: 15 January 2012).

In the text:
(‘Tenby’, 2011)

REPORTS & RESEARCH

Published reports

Order of information:

Surname/s, Initial/s (year) Title of report, Place of publication: Publisher OR Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:

Hewson,T, McKnight, C.E., Clarke, A, and Marsh, P (1994) Desktop Video: a Report to the Advisory Group on Computer Graphics, Loughborough: HUSAT Research Institute.

In the text:

(Hewson et al, 1994, p. 68) 

Published report where the organisation is listed as the author

Order of information:

Organisation (year) Title of report, Place of publication: Publisher

In the bibliography:

Dell Inc. (2004) Client Server System Performance Benchmarks, London: Dell Technology White Paper.

In the text:

(Dell Inc, 2004, p.27)

Market research reports from online databases

Order of information:

Surname, Initial OR organisation (year) ‘Title of report’. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In the bibliography:
Mintel Oxygen (2011) ‘Car insurance UK’. Available at http://academic.mintel.com (Accessed: 5 January 2013)

In the text:
(Mintel Oxygen 2011)

Conference papers (published)

Order of information:

Surname, Initial (year) 'Title of conference paper', Title of conference. Location, Date of conference. Place of publication: publisher, page references.

In the bibliography:

Matlow, E (1997) ‘Can Anyone Speak Binary: the impact of new technologies on graphic design education. Digital Creativity’, The CADE Conference. London, April 1- 4 1997. Derby: University of Derby. Pp. 65-73.

In the text:

(Matlow, 1997)

Conference papers (published on the Internet)

Order of information:

Surname, Initial (year) 'Title of conference paper', Title of conference. Location, Date of conference. Page references. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In the bibliography:
Mendes, L. and Romao, T. (2011) ‘Children as teachers’, Proceedings of the 8th international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 November. Available at: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2071438 (Accessed 4 September 2014)

In the text:
(Mendes and Romao, 2011)

Tutor handouts

Order of information:

Surname/s, Initial/s (year) 'Title of handout', Module code: Module title. Institution. Unpublished.

In the bibliography:

McQuiston, L and Barr, J (2013) ‘Ways to Analyse a Film’, CO201, Dissertation Preparation. Ravensbourne. Unpublished.

(If citing an online copy add, for example: Available at http://learn.rave.ac.uk/moodle/course Accessed 29.05.13)

In the text:

(McQuiston and Barr, 2013)

Tutors lecture notes in VLEs

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (year) ‘Title of item’. Module Code: Module title. Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date)

In bibliography:
Evans, C. et al (2017) “3 people you should know!’. CO201: Dissertation Preparation. Available at: https://moodle.rave.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=4247 (Accessed: 19 July 2017)

In text:
(Evans et al, 2017)

Theses

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (year) Title of thesis. Degree statement. Degree awarding body.

In the bibliography:
Andersdotter, S. (2015) Choking on the madeleine: encounters and alternative approaches to memory in a contemporary art practice. PhD Thesis. University of the Arts London. Available at: http://ualresearchonline.arts.ac.uk/7841/ (Accessed: 19 July 2017).

In the text:
(Andersdotter, 2015)

Electronic Journal from InfoTrac electronic database

Order of information:

Surname/s, First name/s (year) 'Title', Title of Journal, Day Month, page, InfoTrac Onefile [Online] Available: www..... (Access date)

In the bibliography:

Considine, Peter (2003) ‘Ethnic Diversity: Understanding Ethnic Media’, Campaign, 26 September, p.26. InfoTrac Onefile [Online] Available: http://find.galegroup.com/ (Accessed 05/10/07)

In the text:

(Considine, Electronic Journal, 2003)

Electronic newspaper article from Proquest Learning News database

Order of information:

Surname/s, First name/s (year) 'Title', Title of Newspaper, Day Month [Online] Available: www..... (Access date)

In the bibliography:

Wainwright, Martin (2007) ‘Floods: Worst hit areas braced for yet more rain: Nine-hour downpour if forecast for the weekend: Work to restore supply goes on despite vandalism’, The Guardian, 01 August [Online] Available: http://find.galegroup.com/ (Accessed 01.08.07)

In the text:
(Wainwright, Electronic Newspaper, 2007)

JOURNALS & ARTICLES

Journal (electronic or print or both)

Order of information:

Surname, First name (year) 'Title of article', Title of journal, Issue Information (if applicable), page number/s

In the bibliography:

O’Sullivan, Simon (2006) 'Pragmatics for the Production of Subjectivity: Time for Probe-Heads'. Journal for Cultural Research. Vol. 10 (4) pp. 309-322

In the text:

(O'Sullivan, 2006)

Journal (only electronic, with no print equivalent)

Order of information:

Surname, Initial (year) ‘Title of article’, Title of journal, Issue Information, page reference. Available at: URL (Accessed: date

In the bibliography:
Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) ‘Malaga - a failed resort of the early twentieth century?’, Journal of Tourism History, Vol. 2(3), pp. 187 - 2121. Available at: http://www.tanfonline.com/full/1755182.2016 (Accessed: 23 April 2016)

In the text:
(Barke and Mowl, 2016).

Magazine articles (electronic or print)

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (year) ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine, Issue Information, page reference.

In the bibliography:
Bletcher, K. (2012) ‘Matters of the Heart’, Heart Matters, (August/September), pp. 9 - 11.

In the text:
(Bletcher, 2012)

Magazine articles (electronic with no print equivalent)

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (year) ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine, Issue Information, page reference. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In the bibliography:
Brealey, S. (2015) ‘Returning to work after a heart attack’, Health of the Heart, Vol 6(3), pp. 65 - 72. Available at: https://bhf.org.uk/healthoftheheart/work (Accessed: 14 September 2015).

In the text:
(Breasly, 2015)

Newspaper articles (electronic or print)

Order of information:

Surname, Initial (year) 'Title of article', Title of newspaper. Day and month, page reference.

In the bibliography:

Donachy, Jacqueline (2002) ‘Mix Retro Furniture with Modern Design’ Evening Times, 20th March, p.32

In the text:

(Donachy, 2002)

Articles from a Section of a Newspaper

Order of information:

Title of Newspaper: Section (year) ‘Title of article’, Day and month, page reference.

In the bibliography:

The Guardian: G2 (2013) ‘Hope springs eternal’, 24 July, p. 14

In the text:
(The Guardian: G2, 2013, p.14)

Regional Newspapers

When referencing a regional newspaper, include the edition to distinguish it from others with the same title.

Order of information:

Surname, Initial (year) 'Title of article', Title of newspaper. (Edition) Day and month, page reference.

In the bibliography:

Old, D. (2012) ‘House price gloom’, Evening Chronicle, (Newcastle edn), 26 June, p.25

In text:
(Old, 2012)

Newspaper articles with no author (electronic or print)

Order of information:

Title of Newspaper (year) ‘Title of article’, Day and month, page reference.

In the bibliography:

Northern Echo (2003) ‘Mixed fortunes for schoolboy racer’ 11th July, p.8

In the text:

(Northern Echo, 2003, p.8)

Online newspapers

NB: If you are specifically using the online version of a newspaper, which often varies from the print edition (for example no pagination), then you would reference it using the URL.

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (year) ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Day month. Available at: URL (Accessed date).

In the bibliography:
Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) ‘US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria’, The Guardian, 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolution-90-days (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

In the text:

(Roberts and Ackerman, 2013)

WEB PAGES

Web pages with individual authors

Order of information:

Surname/s, Initial/s (year the site was published/last updated) Title of web page Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:

Buchannan, Val (2002) Web Guides: Fashion Available at:

http://www.lint.ac.uk/library/webguides/fashion.htm (Accessed: 21 March 2005) 

In the text:

(Buchannan, 2002) 

Web pages with organisations as authors

Order of information:

Organisation (year the site was published/last updated) Title of web page Available at: URL (Accessed:date)

In the bibliography:
Royal Institute of British Architects (2013) The New RIBA Exhibition Gallery Available: http://www.architecture.com/TheRIBA/NewRIBAExhibitionGallery/Thegallery.aspx#.UaX4MZwTwgM (Accessed 29 May 2013)

In the text:

(Royal Institute of British Architects, 2013)

Web pages with no author

Order of information:

Title of web page (year the site was published/last updated) Available at: URL (Accessed:date)

In the bibliography:
Palladio’s Italian villas (2005) Available at: http://www.boglewood.com/palladio/ (Accessed: 23 August 2015)


In the text:
(Palladio’s Italian villas, 2005)

Web pages with no author or title

Order of information:

URL (year the site was published/last updated) (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:

http://www.levistrauss.com/Cpmpany/Cpmpamy/Tranformation.aspx (Accessed: 28 September 2006)

In the text:
(www.levistrauss.com)

Web pages with no date

Order of information:

Author (no date) Title of web page. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In the bibliography:
New media Republic (no date) Compression. Available at http://www.newmediarepublic.com/dvideo/compression.html (Accessed: 16 June 2015).

In the text:
(New Media Republic, no date)

Facebook

Order of information:

Surname, Initial (year that the page was published/last updated) Title of page, [Facebook] Day and Month of posted message. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:

Stephenson, J. (2017) Miniclick Photography Talks, [Facebook] 27 June 2017. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/groups/miniclick/ (Accessed: 20 July 2017)

In the text:

(Miniclick Photography Talks, 2017)

Twitter

Order of information:

Surname, initial. (year Tweet posted) [Twitter] Day/month of tweet posted. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:

Fry, S (2017) [Twitter] 20 July 2017. Available: https://twitter.com/stephenfry (Accessed: 20 July 2017)

In the text:

(Fry, 2017)

Blogs

Order of information:

Surname/s, Initial/s (year the site was published/last updated) 'Title of post', Title of Internet site, Day/month of posted message. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
Page, Ruth (2013) ‘Article on Counter Narratives and Wikipedia', Digital Narratives, 13 February 2013 Available: http://digitalnarratives.blogspot.co.uk/2013/02/article-on-counter-narratives-and.html (Accessed 18 March 2013)

In the text:
(Page, 2013)

EXHIBITIONS & VISITS

Exhibitions

Order of information:

Title of exhibition [exhibition], Location, Dates of exhibition

In the bibliography:

Wait, Later This Morning This Will Be Nothing: Editions by Dieter Roth [exhibition], MoMA, New York, 17 May - 24 June 2013

In the text:

(Wait, Later This Morning This Will Be Nothing: Editions by Dieter Roth, 2013)

Installations and exhibits

Order of information:

Artist (year) Title of installation or exhibit [Installation] OR [Exhibit]. Gallery or location, Date viewed

In the bibliography:
Emin, T. (1999) My Bed [Installation]. Tate Gallery, London, 31 October 2000

In the text:
(My Bed by Tracey Emin, 1999)

Display Boards

Order of information:

Title (year) Display Board at: Name of venue, City. Date observed.

In the bibliography:
Handful of Dust (2017) Display Board at Whitechapel Gallery, London, September 2017.

In the text:
(Handful of Dust, 2017)

Visits

Order of information:

Place of visit (year) location [visit] date of visit

In the bibliography:

The Carloway Mill (2010) Isle of Lewis, Scotland [visit] 13 November

In the text:
(The Carloway Mill, visit, 2010)

SOUND

Radio

Order of information:

Title of programme (Year of transmission) Name of channel, Date of transmisson.

In the bibliography:
Today (2008) BBC Radio 4, 15 August

In the text:
(Today, 2008)

Internet Radio

Order of information:

Title of programme (Year of transmission) Name of channel, Day and month of original transmission. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In the bibliography:
Redesigning the human body (2006) BBC Radio 4, 25 September. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/redesigninghumanbody/ (Accessed: 15 June 2012).

In the text:
(Redesigning the human body, 2006)

Podcasts with author/presente

Order of information:

Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/ last updated) Title of podcast [Podcast]. Day/month of posted message. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
Verity, A., Laurie, D., Clark, M. and Naylor J. (2012) Retail sales figures. [Podcast]. 4 September. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/money (Accessed: 25 September 2012).

In the text:
(Verity et al. 2012)

Podcasts without author/presenter

Order of information:

Series (Year that the site was published/ last updated) Title of podcast [Podcast]. Day/month of posted message. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In the bibliography:
Oracle Business Sense (2013) Structure [Podcast]. 12 June. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/podcast/0,,329509709,00.xml (Accessed: 27 June 2013).

In the text:
(Oracle Business Sense, 2013)

Concerts: Classical

Order of information:

Composer, (year) Title Performed by … conducted by… Location [Date seen].

In the bibliography:
Lord, J. (2007) Durham Concerto. Performed by the Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Mischa Damev [Durham Cathedral, Durham, 20 October]

In text:
(Lord, 2007)

Concerts: Bands

Order of information:

Composer, (year) Title [Location, Date seen].

In the bibliography:
Kings of Leon (2008) [Glastonbury Festival. 27 June]

In text:
(Kings of Leon, 2008)

PRIMARY RESEARCH

Interviews (your own)

Order of information:

Surname and First name of interviewee (year) Title/profession

In the bibliography:
Antoine, Karl and Brissett, Delaro (2004) Dancers. Holland. 11 August 2004. They are both leaders of the Nubian Step Dancers

In the text:
(Antoine and Brissett, interview, 2004)

Questionnaires and surveys (your own)

Order of information:

Surname, First name (year) Title [questionnaire] / [survey], amount of responses, place/form of distribution

In the bibliography:
Jacobs, Anne (2013) British commuting habits [questionnaire], 65 responses, Surveymonkey.com.

In the text:
(Jacobs, questionnaire, 2013)

Focus groups (your own)

Order of information:

Your Surname, First name (year) Title [focus group], amount of participants, place, date.

In the bibliography:

Jacobs, Anne (2013) British commuting habits [focus group], 8 participants, Ravensbourne, 15 May 2013

In the text:

(Jacobs, focus group, 2013)

E-mails and other personal communications

Order of information:

Surname, Initial (year of communication) Medium of communication. Receiver of communication. Day/month of communication

In the bibliography:

Faulkner, M. Creative Director D-Fuse (2006). Email to the author (or student’s own name), 16th September 2006

In the text:

(Faulkner, 2006)

In the bibliography:
Lashmar, Paul investigative journalist (2006). Telephone interview with the author (or student’s own name) 1st November 2006

In the text:
(Lashmar, interview, 2006)

Walters, F. (2015) Conversation with John Stephens, 13 August.

Walters, F. (2015) Letter to John Stephens, 23 January.

Walters, F. (2015) Email to John Stephens, 14 August.

Walters, F. (2015) Telephone conversation with John Stephens, 25 December.

Walters, F. (2015) Skype conversation with John Stephens, 21 June.

Walters, F. (2015) FaceTime conversation with John Stephens, 21 June.

Walters, F. (2015) Text message to John Stephens, 14 June.

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